Working to Advance
Health Equity in Africa

Dr Gavin George

  • Programme Leader
  • Health Systems Strengthening

Dr George is an economist and behavioural scientist specialising in health systems research. His research skills include quantitative and qualitative methods, including evaluation design and analysis. He is the Programme leader of the Health Systems Strengthening Programme. Dr George has undertaken work on a number of projects in the field of health systems strengthening and specifically HIV and AIDS on economic, psycho-social and behavioural issues on behalf of UN agencies (UNAIDS, UNICEF, ILO, World Bank); Governments (South African, European Union, Swaziland, Botswana and the U.S), funders (Swedish SIDA, IrishAID, RNE, DfID, GFATM) as well as big business (SABCOHA, De Beers, AngloAmerican, SAB, Goldfields, Eskom).

He is currently an investigator on the following projects: a) Sida funded MMC research among youth with partner CAPRISA, b) SADC funded three country study to study HIV prevention and treatment interventions with mobile populations (Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe) with partners Edwardo Mondlane University, Mozambique, FACT, Zimbabwe and North Star Alliance, c) Evaluation of HCT Services in South Africa for Department of Health, with partner Epi Centre. He is also a Co-investigator on the HIV Provincial Prevalence Study (KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa), CDC Funded Study with partners CAPRISA and EpiCentre.

He is currently providing technical assistance to the Department of Basic Education and USAID on the development of sexuality education in schools, resource flow tracking for UNFPA and World Bank, mapping the South African health accounts to WHO’s accounting framework System of Health Accounts (SHA), costing health system interventions for the Centre for Rural Health and M&E support to SADC PF.

Latest Publications

Research outputs

Book contribution

Regondi, I., Govender, K., Naidoo, K., and George, G. 2015, Medical male circumcision and the politics of no alternative: Why the public health imperative scored a victory over tradition. Global HIV/AIDS politics, policy, and activism: Persistent challenges and emerging issues: Policy and policymaking, 2 (-) -, Praeger

Regondi, I., Govender, K., Naidoo, K., and George, G. 2012 Medical circumcision and the politics of no alternative: Why the public health imperative scored a victory against HIV/AIDS? Global HIV/AIDS Politics, Policy, and Activism: Persistent Challenges and Emerging Issues, Praeger

George, G., Reardon, C., and Quinlan, T (2015) Human Resources for Health: Challenges facing sub-Saharan Africa In I. Luginaah & R.B. Kerr (Eds.), Geographies of Health and Development, pp 115-132, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited

Journal article

George, G., Rhodes, B. and Laptiste, C. (2020) Estimating the Financial Incentive for Caribbean Teachers to Migrate: An Analysis of Salary Differentials using Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). Journal of Education and Development in the Caribbean, 19 (2), 1-19.

Kelvin, E.A., George, G., Romo, M.L., Mantell, J.E., Mwai, E., Nyaga, E.N., Odhiambo, J.O. and Govender, K.(2021) The Impact on HIV Testing Over 6 Months When Free Oral HIV Self-Test Kits Were Available to Truck Drivers in Kenya: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Frontiers in Public Health,9, 1-8.

Mumbauer, A., Strauss, M., George, G., Ngwepe, P., Bezuidenhout, C., de Vos, L. and Medina-Marino, A., 2021. Employment preferences of healthcare workers in South Africa: Findings from a discrete choice experiment. Plos one,16(4),1-17.

Sprague, C., McMahan, L.D., Maqsood, L., & George, G. (2021) 'Eventually I wanted something more': sexual self-reflections of South African women engaged in transactional sexual relationships with blessers. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 1-16.

Maughan-Brown, B., Venkataramani, A., Kharsany, A.B., Beckett, S., Govender, K., Lewis, L., Cawood, C., Khanyile, D. and George, G. (2020) Recently formed age-disparate partnerships are associated with elevated HIV incidence among young women in South Africa. AIDS (London, England), 34(1),1-10.

Kharsany, A.B., McKinnon, L.R., Lewis, L., Cawood, C., Khanyile, D., Maseko, D.V., Goodman, T.C., Beckett, S., Govender, K., George, G. and Ayalew, K.A. (2020) Population Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a high HIV burden district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Implications for HIV epidemic control. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 98, 1-8

Maughan-Brown, B., Beckett, S., Kharsany, A.B., Cawood, C., Khanyile, D., Lewis, L., Venkataramani, A. and George, G. (2021) Poor rates of linkage to HIV care and uptake of treatment after home-based HIV testing among newly diagnosed 15-to-49 year-old men and women in a high HIV prevalence setting in South Africa. AIDS care, 33(1), 1-11.

Nota, P., Govender, E. and Vukapi, Y. (2020) “Male-supported, female-initiated”: Exploring a cultural message for communicating around new HIV prevention technologies for women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal for Communication Sciences in Southern Africa, 39(1), 1-15.

Rautenberg, T.A., George, G., Bwana, M.B., Moosa, M.S., Pillay, S., McCluskey, S.M., Aturinda, I., Ard, K., Muyindike, W., Moodley, P. and Brijkumar, J. (2020) Comparative analyses of published cost effectiveness models highlight critical considerations which are useful to inform development of new models. Journal of medical economics, 23(3), 1-8.

Christian, S.N., Mantell, J.E., Romo, M.L., Grov, C., George, G., Mwai, E., Nyaga, E., Odhiambo, J.O., Govender, K. and Kelvin, E.A. (2020) Applying a social-ecological lens to opinions about HIV self-testing among Kenyan truckers who declined to test: a qualitative study. African Journal of AIDS Research, 19(2), 1-10.

Strauss, M., George, G., Mantell, J.E., Mapingure, M., Masvawure, T.B., Lamb, M.R., Zech, J.M., Musuka, G., Chingombe, I., Msukwa, M. and Boccanera, R. (2021) Optimizing Differentiated HIV Treatment Models in Urban Zimbabwe: Assessing Patient Preferences Using a Discrete Choice Experiment. AIDS and Behavior, 25(2), 397-413.

Romo, M.L., George, G., Mantell, J.E., Mwai, E., Nyaga, E., Strauss, M., Odhiambo, J.O., Govender, K., Kelvin, E.A. 2019 Depression and sexual risk behavior among long-distance truck drivers at roadside wellness clinics in Kenya PeerJ 7:e7253 DOI 10.7717/peerj.7253

Govender, K., Cowden, R.G., Asante, K.O. et al. Prev Sci (2019). Sexual Risk Behavior: a Multi-System Model of Risk and Protective Factors in South African Adolescents Prev Sci (2019).

George, G. & Rhodes, B. The Economics of Teaching in India Versus Teaching Aboard: Teacher Salary Differentials Using Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) Int. Migration & Integration (2019).

George, G., Adams Tucker, L., Panday, S., Khumalo,F. (2018) Challenges facing life orientation educators in the delivery of sexuality education in South African schools George, G, Tucker, LA, Panday, S & Khumalo, F (2018) Southern African Review of Education, 24(1): 43-57.

George, G., Rhodes, B., Laptiste., C. What is the financial incentive to immigrate? An analysis of salary disparities between health workers working in the Caribbean and popular destination countries BMC Health Services Research 2019 19:109

Maughan-Brown, B., George, G., Beckett, S., et al Age-disparate partnerships and HSV-2 among adolescent girls and young women in South Africa: implications for HIV infection risk. Sex Transm Infect Published Online First: 08 February 2019. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2018-053577

George, G., Maughan-Brown, B., Beckett, S. et al. An Examination of Men’s Wealth and Age Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey Sexuality & Culture (2019) 23: 45.

 Kelvin, EA., George, G., Kinyanjui, S., et al Announcing the availability of oral HIV self-test kits via text message to increase HIV testing among hard-to-reach truckers in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial BMC Public Health201919:7

George, G., Nene, S., Beckett, S., Durevall, D., Lindskog, A., Govender, K. (2019) Greater risk for more money: the economics of negotiating condom use amongst sex workers in South Africa, AIDS Care, 31:9, 1168-1171, DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1563284

Durevall D, Lindskog A, George G (2019) Education and HIV incidence among young women in KwaZulu-Natal: An association but no evidence of a causal protective effect. PLoS ONE 14(3): e0213056.

Cowden, R. G., Govender, K., Asante, K. O., Reardon, C., & George, G. (2018). Validation of the Perceived Sense of School Membership Scale: A South African Version. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 36(4), 411–417.

Kharsany ABM, Cawood C, Khanyile D, Lewis L, Grobler A, Puren A, Govender K, George G, Beckett S, Samsunder N, Madurai S, Toledo C, Chipeta Z, Glenshaw M, Hersey S, Abdool Karim Q Community-based HIV Prevalence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Results of a Cross-sectional Household Survey

elvin, E.A., George, G., Mwai, E. et al. AIDS Behav (2018). A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase HIV Testing Demand Among Female Sex Workers in Kenya Through Announcing the Availability of HIV Self-testing Via Text Message

George, G., Chetty, T., Strauss, M., Inoti, S., et al. (2018) Costing analysis of an SMS-based intervention to promote HIV selftesting amongst truckers and sex workers in Kenya PLoS ONE. 10.1371/journal.pone.0197305

Strauss M., George G., Lansdell E., Mantell JE., Govender K., Romo M., Odhiambo J., Mwai E., Nyaga EN and Kelvin EA (2018) HIV Testing Preferences Among Long Distance Truck Drivers in Kenya: A Discrete Choice Experiment AIDS Care, 30(1), pp72-80, doi: 10.1080/09540121.2017.1367086

Romo, ML., George, G., Mantell, JE., Mwai, E., Nyaga, E., Odhiambo., JO, Govender, K, Kelvin,EA ( 2018) Psychosocial Characteristics of Primary Care-Seeking Long-Distance Truck Drivers in Kenya and Associations with HIV Testing African Journal of AIDS Research,

Brendan, MB., George, G., Beckett, S., Evans,., M, Lewis, L., Cawood, C., David, K., Kharsany., ABM (2018) HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women in age-disparate partnerships: Evidence from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001656

George, G., Govender, K., Beckett, S., Montague, C & Frohlich, J (2017) Factors associated with the take-up of voluntary medical male circumcision amongst learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal African Journal of AIDS Research, 16:3, 251-256, DOI: 10.2989/16085906.2017.1369441

Govender, K., George, G., Beckett, S., Montague, C and Frohlich, J (2017) Risk Compensation Following Medical Male Circumcision: Results from a 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study of Young School-Going Men in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, DOI 10.1007/s12529-017-9673-0

George, G and Rhodes, B (2017) Is there a financial incentive to immigrate? Examining of the health worker salary gap between India and popular destination countries Human Resources for Health, 15(74),

Siedner, MJ., Bwana, MB., Moosa, MYS., Paul, M., Pillay,, McCluskey, SS Aturinda, I., Ard, K., Muyindike, W., Moodley, P., Brijkumar, J., Rautenberg, T., George, G., Johnson,B., Gandhi, RT., Sunpath, H & Marconi, VC (2017) The REVAMP trial to evaluate HIV resistance testing in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study in clinical trial design in resource limited settings to optimize effectiveness and cost effectiveness estimates HIV Clinical Trials,

George, G., Strauss, M and Asfaw, E (2017) The cost of demand creation activities and voluntary medical male circumcision targeting school-going adolescents in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Plos One,

Strauss M., George G and Rhodes B (2017) Designing human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing services to maximize uptake among high school learners in South Africa: What matters? Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 44 (5), pp 290-296, DOI 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000586

Kelvin, EA., George, G., Mwai, E., Nyaga, EN., Mantell, JE., Romo, ML., Odhiambo, JO., Govender, K (2017) Offering Self-administered Oral HIV Testing as a Choice to Truck Drivers in Kenya: Predictors of Uptake and Need for Guidance While Self-testing AIDS and Behaviour, DOI 10.1007/s10461-017-1783-9

Evans, M., Maughan-Brown, B., Zungu, N and George, G (2017) HIV prevalence and art use among men in partnerships with 15–29 year old women in South Africa: HIV risk implications for young women in age-disparate partnerships AIDS and Behavior, DOI 10.1007/s10461-017-1741-6

George, G., Govender, K., Beckett, S., Montague, C and Frohlich, J (2016) Early resumption of sex following voluntary medical male circumcision amongst school-going males PLoS ONE 11(12): e0168091. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0168091

Strauss, M., George, G and Rhodes, B.D (2016) Determining preferences related to HIV counselling and testing services among high school learners in KwaZulu-Natal: A discrete choice experiment AIDS and Behavior, DOI 10.1007/s10461-016-1602-8

Fieno, JV., Dambisya, YM., George, G and Benson, K (2016) A political economy analysis of human resources for health in Africa Human Resources for Health, 14(44), doi 10.1186/s12960-016-0137-4

Tucker, LA., George, G., Reardon, C and Panday, S (2016) Sexuality education in South African schools: The challenge for civil society organisations Health Education Journal, DOI 10.1177/0017896916652166

Reardon, C., George,G., Mucheuki,C., Govender, K and Quinlan, T (2015) Psychosocial and health risk outcomes among orphans and non-orphans in mixed households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa African Journal of AIDS Research, 14:4, 323-331, DOI: 10.2989/16085906.2015.1095774

Adams-Tucker, L, George, G, Reardon, C and Panday, S (2015) Learning the basics”: Young peoples’ engagement with sexuality education at secondary schools Sex Education: Sexuality, Society & Learning, pp1-17, DOI: 10.1080/14681811.2015.1091768

George, G., Atujuna, M., Gentile, J., Quinlan, T., Schmidt, P., Tobi, P., and Renton, A. 2010, The impact of ART scale-up on health workers: Evidence from two South African districts AIDS Care, 77 (84), - , Taylor & Francis Online, DOI: 10.1080/09540120903544439

Gow, J., George, G., Mutinta, G., Mwamba, L and Ingombe, L, 2011, Health Worker shortages in Zambia: an assessment of government responses Journal of Public Health Policy, 32 (4), 476-88, Macmillan,

Govender, K., Penning, S., George, G and Quinlan, T., 2011, Weighing up the burden of care on caregivers of orphan children: The Amajuba District Child Health and Wellbeing Project, South Africa AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV, 24 (6), 712-721, Taylor & Francis Online, DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2011.630455

George, G and Sprague, C., 2011, HIV Prevention in the world of work in sub-Saharan Africa: Research and practice African Journal of AIDS Research, 10 (1), 291-300, Taylor & Francis Online, doi: 10.2989/16085906.2011.637725

Bhagwanjee, A., Govender, K., Petersen, I., Akintola, O., George, G., Johnstone, L and Naidoo, K, 2011, Patterns of disclosure and antiretroviral treatment adherence in a South African mining workplace programme and implications for HIV prevention African Journal of AIDS Research, 10 (1), 357-368, Taylor & Francis Online, doi: 10.2989/16085906.2011.637737

Mutinta, G., Govender, K., Gow, J. and George, G, 2012 An exploratory study of the individual determinants of students sexual risk behaviour at a South African university African Journal of AIDS Research, 11 (4), 353-359, Taylor & Francis Online, DOI:10.2989/16085906.2012.754836

George, G., and C. Reardon, 2013 Preparing for export? Medical and nursing student migration intentions post-qualification in South Africa African Journal of Primary Health Care Family Medicine , 5 (1), -, African Journal of Primary Health Care Family Medicine,doi:10.4102/phcfm.v5i1.483

Gow, J., George, G., and K. Govender, 2013, A comparison of quality of life between HIV positive and negative diamond miners in South Africa SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An OpenAcess Journal, 10 (2), 89-95, Taylor & Francis Online, DOI: 10.1080/17290376.2013.870066

George, G., Govender, K., Bachoo, S., Penning, S. and T. Quinlan, 2013 Comparative economic positions of orphan, non-orphan and mixed households: findings from round 3 of the Amajuba District Study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies: An International Interdisciplinary Journal for Research, Policy and Care, 9 (1), -, Taylor & Francis Online, DOI:10.1080/17450128.2013.772316

Mutinta, G., Govender, K., Gow, J. and G. George, 2013 An investiagtion of students' risky sexual behavouir at KwaZulu-Natal University, Durban, South Africa American Journal of Sexuality Education, 8 (3) , 121-139, London, Routledge, DOI: 10.1080/15546128.2013.828339

Gow, J., George, G and Grant, B., 2013 Managing the costs of HIV/AIDS: A case study of a South African contract cleaning company Development South Africa, 29 (3), 434-447, London, Routledge, doi:10.1080/0376835X.2012.706039

George, G., and Gow, J. 2014 They protect us, but are they using protection? The potential impact of HIV on the South African Police Service African Security Review, 23 (2), 117-131, Taylor & Francis Online, DOI:10.1080/10246029.2014.902387

George, G., Strauss, M., Chirawu, P., Rhodes, B., Frohlich, J., Montague, C., and Govender, K. 2014 Barriers and facilitators to the uptake of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) among adolescent boys in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa African Journal of AIDS Research, 13 (2), 179-187, Routledge, DOI: 10.2989/16085906.2014.943253

Gow, J., and George, G. 2011 Business management of HIV/AIDS – The case study of a South African contract cleaning company African Journal of Business Management, 5 (11), pp 4100-4106, Academic, Doi:10.1080/09540121.2011.630455

George, G., Gow, J., and Bachoo, S. 2013 Understanding the factors influencing health-worker employment decisions in South Africa Human Resources for Health, 11(5),BioMed Central, Doi:10.1186/1478-4491-11-15

Mutinta, G., Gow J., George, G., Kunda, K., and Ojteg, K, 2011, The influence of socio-economic determinants on HIV prevalence in South Africa Review of Economics & Finance

George, G., Reardon, C., Gunthrop, J. Moeti, T., Chingombe, I., Busang, L., and Musuka, G. 2012 The Madikewe Forum: a comprehensensive partnership for supporting governance of Botswana's HIV and AIDS response African Journal of AIDS Research, Vol 11, pp27-35, NISC (Pty) Ltd and Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, DOI:10.2989/16085906.2012.671252

George, G., Surgey, G., and Gow, J. 2014 South Africa’s private sector investment in training and its erosion as a result of HIV and AIDS South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 17 (2), pp109-123, South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences

Govender, K., Akintola, O., George, G., Petersen, I., Bhagwanjee, A., and Reardon, C. 2011 Psychosocial and behavioural correlates of attitudes towards antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a sample of South African mineworkers Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 8 (2), Taylor & Francis Online

Govender, K., George, G., Mucheuki, C., and Strauss, M. 2014 Voluntary medical male circumcision in South Africa: Challenges and opportunities South African Health Review 2013/14

Gow, J., George, G., Mwamba, S., Ingombe, L., and Mutinta, G. (2012) Health worker satisfaction and motivation: An empirical study of Incomes, allowances and working conditions in Zambia International Journal of Business Management, 7 (10), International Journal of Business Management, doi:10.5539/ijbm.v7n10p37

Bhagwanjee, A., Govender, K., Reardon, C., Johnstone, L., George, G., and S.Gordon. 2013 Gendered constructions of the impact of HIV and AIDS in the context of the HIV-positive seroconcordant heterosexual relationship Journal of the International AIDS Society, 6 (18021)

George, G., Chitindingu, E., and Gow, J. (2013) Evaluating traditional healers knowledge and practices related to HIV testing and treatment in South Africa BMC International Health and Human Rights, doi:10.1186/1472-698X-13-45

Reardon, C., and George, G. 2014 An examination of the factors fueling migration amongst community service practitioners Afr JPrm Health Care Fam Med, 6(1),