Human rights violations are a fundamental driver of the HIV vulnerability and risk for key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men, people who use drugs, transgender people). Stigma, discrimination and human rights violations are argued to be one of the major barriers to HIV prevention and treatment, particularly where criminal laws combined with high levels of stigma, discrimination and human rights abuses marginalise key populations from society in general, as well as from crucial health services. Protecting and promoting human rights is not only an obligation upon all States in terms of international, regional and national commitments, but has also been shown to be an integral part of an effective HIV response